When it comes to design, one has to be very specific. This is because when one is designing something it will last for a long time and other design options will happen much later. Experts state that it is best to decorate a bathroom after some years. After ten years is the best time to do so. Therefore, being sure of the design one wants will save a person heartache and pain. When designing and plumbing a bathroom, one will have to take into consideration the bath tub or shower, the color to be used in the bathroom, the taps and flooring. All of these aspects make a bathroom more interesting.
There are many design secrets out there and knowing, at least, three or four of them will make you an expert when it comes to designing not only a bathroom but also other rooms in a house. The first secret that one should know is that they will have to pay attention to the space that they will be working with. This space is what will determine if one will work with crazy designs, more bold color and big or small floor designs.
The other secret will be giving your room personality. This includes adding things that make this room look more alive. This is best done with such things as mementos and other small things. Take for example: one has gone on safari or on a vacation; they should, at least, buy things that best commemorate that trip.
Some people are used to buying t-shirts and others buy statues, gems and other gifts. When one collects all these, they would have things that they can decorate with all over giving a room personality and style.
Other secrets include considering all who will be using the space. This is one aspect that will make a person feel welcomed and loved. We all know that there are some homes that have three or more bathrooms. When one takes one bathroom at a time, they will create a space that would be spacious and airy. If one bathroom has been decorated after a female, the other one should be more neutral while another should reflect the masculine nature. All of these would create symmetry and a great aspect for all to enjoy. Neutral bathrooms are best used for guests while the others would be used with ease by other family members. When incorporating different styles, one should look keenly at what a
family loves and admires.
The other secret would be to add architecture to a room. This is because one small aspect would lend a room definition. Adding something small and trim all around the room would make space appear bigger and airy. Others use crown moldings that lend this room more style. All of these have been used in and around a home, but most people shy away from using the same designs in a bathroom. Taking risks and following through with one’s gut instinct would make one a better designer than others before you.
The heat energy that water can hold is related to its mass, as with specific heat of building materials mentioned in, and strictly speaking we should refer to its mass in kilograms.
However, as 1 litre of water has a mass of 1 kg at normal temperature and is only slightly lighter at circulating temperature, and as pump performance is always given using volume flow, it will make things easier to work in litres throughout.
The metric unit of energy is the joule but, unlike the old imperial British Thermal Unit, it is so small that most people avoid it. However, I mention it here to explain an odd number that we will need. It takes 4187 joules to raise the temperature of 1 litre of water by 1 °C; to raise the temperature by 10 °C would therefore need 41 870 joules. When the litre of water cools by 10 °C it gives up 41 870 joules.
A watt is defined as a rate of energy transfer of 1 joule per second so if the litre of water gives up its 41 870 joules in only one second, it is transferring heat at a rate of 41 870 watts.
From this you can see that if we divide the heating requirement in watts by 41 870, it will tell us how many litres must flow every second in our heating circuit. If the heat losses of your house amount to 167 480 watts, then dividing by 41 870 produces a requirement of 4 litres per second (4l/s). This flow rate must be supplied through pipework and the next thing is to find out what size
will be needed.
A 15mm diameter tube 1 m long can contain 0.145 litres of water. If 4l/s are required, we need the water contained in 27.6 metres to flow every second; this means the water will be travelling at a speed of 27.6 metres per second or in more vivid terms 62 mph, which is a bit reckless around the house! In practice it is found that a velocity of 1 metre per second is as fast as you can go if vibration and noise are to be within acceptable limits.
As one metre of tube holds 0.145 litres, and we cannot exceed a velocity of 1 m/s then 0.145 l/s is all we can push through this size of tube. If 1 l/s cooling 10°C provides 41 780 watts, then 0.145 l/s will provide 6058 watts, which is the maximum heat load of 15 mm tube. Table 6.1 gives rounded limits for the other sizes of small-bore tube.
I said earlier that a pump’s performance can be measured by reference to the water flow rate and the height to which it can be lifted. The pump’s ability to lift water has many applications but in a heating system no lifting is necessary, since the circuit is already full of water held up by static pressure. The pump is needed to create a pressure differential to get the water moving and to overcome friction.
As water travels along a tube, friction exists between it and the tube walls. If there is twice the length of tube, there will also be twice the friction. If the same pump mentioned earlier, which can deliver 2 litres per second with a head of 3m, were to pump along a length of pipe and at the end, 2 l/s could be lifted to a height of only 2 m then the pump has lost 1 mofits head overcoming the friction in the pipe.
Put another way, this length of pipe, for a flow rate of 2 l/s, produces a head loss of 1 m. If the flow increases, the friction will increase. Table 6.2 shows the head loss, in milimetres, per metre run of pipework, for different sizes of tube at varying flow rates. As we use a standard 10 °C temperature drop, the heat carried is always proportional to the flow rate so I have shown the heat load in watts.